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Title: Поділля в роки нової економфічної політики: політичні, соціально-економічні та культурно-духовні процеси (1921-1928)
Other Titles: Podillya in the Years of the New Economic Policy: Political, Social, Economic, Cultural and Spiritual Processes (1921-1928)
Authors: Олійник, Микола Петрович
Oliynyk, M.P.
Keywords: голод;етнополітика;неп;Поділля;повстанці;реформи;українізація;famine;ethno-policy;NEP;Podillya;insurgent;reform;ukrainization
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Чернівецький національний університет ім. Ю. Федьковича
Citation: Олійник М. П. Поділля в роки нової економічної політики: політичні, соціально-економічні та культурно-духовні процеси (1921-1928) : автореф. дис. … д-ра іст. наук : 07.00.01 / Олійник Микола Петрович ; Чернів. нац. ун-т ім. Ю. Федьковича. — Чернівці, 2016. — 35 с. — Бібліогр.: с. 27-32.
Abstract: У дисертації проаналізовано форми та методи формування й діяльності органів влади; особливості адміністративно-територіальної реформи 1923-1925 рр. Встановлено регіональні особливості антирадянського руху опору; реалізації аграрної та податкової політики, відбудови промисловості, розвитку підприємництва; трансформації соціальної політики; причини і соціальну базу контрабанди та самогоноваріння. Досліджено проведення етнополітики, зміни в системі охорони здоров’я, освіти та культури, процес ліквідації неписьменності, відносини влади та церкви. Показані масштаби і причини голоду 1925-1926 рр. Доведено, що застосуванням більшовиками методів з арсеналу колонізаторів забезпечило утвердження радянської влади, проте не дало очікуваних від непу результатів.
The dissertation provides, for the first time in the national history science, an analysis of the state of historic research of the subject, the degree of research of its specific issues, and ascertains that the present topic has not yet been a subject of a comprehensive study. Analysis of 675 archived cases in 40 funds of 5 national archives of Ukraine, most of which where open for scientific use for the first time, of 68 compilations and single published documents, and of 111 publications in the republican and regional newspapers of 1920s, allowed to formulate a representative database of sources covering all the aspects of the researched topic. It is concluded that the bilshovyks, not having enough party members in Podillya, especially in the towns, obtained control in the Soviet institutions relying on military power and committees of poor peasants, through depriving unreliable elements of voting rights, and using the system of unequal and indirect open elections. It is ascertained that through these institutions they legitimized their, in fact occupation regime. It is claimed that in the circumstances of a rigid dictatorship, the population of Podillya could only protect their interests through insurgent underground fight, the biggest in the right-bank Ukraine in 1921-22, which was aimed at re-establishment of independence of Ukraine. Bilshovyks, using the military force, secret employees, provocateurs, and hostages, judicial and extrajudicial terror, etc., suppressed the small groups of rebels and pushed most of them across the border by the fall of 1922. The failure of anti-bilshovyk forces was caused by the lack of support from abroad, coordination and unity among the insurgents. Nevertheless, some rebel groups continued to fight through 1923-26, and underground fight did not cease throughout the period of NEP. It is noted that the administrative-territorial reform in 1923-25 was carried out in a most organized way, in comparison with other Ukrainian gubernias. It was due to the fact that the administrative-territorial commission of the gubernia chaired by professor O. Yaroshevych, used as a basis for the reform the concept of registered land area developed by the scientists of Podillya, which provided for inviolability of the boundaries of settlements together with agricultural land cultivated by them. Creation of circuits and districts enabled the bilshovyk regime to establish control over all the spheres of life in the region through the law-enforcement, political and soviet institutions. The research analyses regional particularities of the tax system evolution and its anti-populace nature pronounced through the unbearable taxation and a wide range of coercive measures against the debtors. It is established that the agricultural policy led caused the famine in the region in 1925-26 with direct and indirect demographic losses of 750 000 persons. In general, during the years of NEP the agriculture of Podillya did not re-establish the level of productivity and livestock to the level of 1914. The attempts of the authorities to impose creation of communes and collective farms did not find support, unlike initiatives to establish machine and tractor partnerships and partnerships of joint land cultivation, which did not aim at any collectivization of property. The study analyses the main directions of transformations in industry and the reasons why its recovery was delayed to the end of the NEP. The attitude of the authorities to craftsmen and artisans is shown to have transformed within a decade from suspicious at the beginning of the NEP, to supportive in mid 1920s, to hostile by the end of the new economic policy. Even bigger changes characterized the attitude to private trade – from its denial in favour of barter transactions, to the state controlled trade, and later to its ousting from the market. For the first time the research points out the reasons, scale and role in the life of Podillya and its population of smuggling and home alcohol distilling. The study delves into ethnicity policy in the region, changes in the healthcare, cultural, and educational systems in Poldillya, process and results of elimination of illiteracy, regional particularities of church and State relations. It is established that all the above led to the establishment of the Soviet authority in Podillya in 1920s. Nevertheless, the methods used for the aim set insurmountable contradictions between the bilshovyk-declared principles of humanity and the inhuman cruelty of their implementation into the life of Ukrainian people throughout the Soviet period of the history of Ukraine
UDC: 94(477.43)"19" (043.3/.5)
metadata.dc.type: Автореферат
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